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With paint comes freshness, articulation of new thoughts and beautification of walls. They give a makeover to the home from drab to fab. But, have we ever wondered what constituents of the paint give it the properties of paint?
Paint is formulated as a mixture of four ingredients:
Binders of paints
Binder is the main ingredient of paint. Binders are polymers (resins) forming a continuous film on the substrate surface. Binders are responsible for good adhesion of the coating to the substrate. The binder holds the pigment particles distributed throughout the coating. The common binders named Alkyd resins, Acrylic resins, Phenolic resins, Epoxy resins, Chlorinated rubber, Latex (PVA) exists in the paint.
Solvents of paints
Solvent (water or organic solvent) is a medium where the binder, pigment and additives are dispersed in molecular form or as colloidal dispersions. Solvents (thinners) are also used for modification of the paint viscosity required for the application methods: brush, roller, dip,spray. The solid coating is formed due to evaporation of solvent, therefore, the evaporation rate is one of the important properties of solvents. The solvents used as the carrier in paints are Water, White spirits (mineral turpentine spirits), Xylene, and Toluene.
Pigments of paints
Pigment is a solid substance dispersed throughout the coating to impart it a color, opacity.
Pigments may protect the substrate from UV light. Pigments change the paint appearance
(gloss level) and properties: increase hardness and decrease ductility. Pigments may be
natural, synthetic, inorganic or organic.
Pigments commonly used in paints are Titanium Dioxide, Zinc Oxide, Zinc Yellow, Yellow
Dyes, Benzidine Yellows, Chrome Oxide Green, and Phthalocyanine Blues.
Additives for paints
Additives are small amounts of substances modifying the paint properties.
Examples of additives:
Driers accelerate the paints drying
Plasticisers increase the paints flexibility.
Fungicides, Biocides and Insecticides prevent growth and attack of fungi, bacteria andinsects.
Flow control agents improve flow properties.
De foamers prevent formation of air bubbles entrapped in the coatings.
Emulsifiers are wetting agents increasing the colloidal stability of the paints in liquid state.
UV stabilizers provide stability of the paints under ultra-violet light.
Anti-skinning agents prevent formation of a skin in the can.
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